Wooden Window

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Wood Species

These are some of our standard wood options, although you may specify virtually any wood species.

Red Oak

Distribution Widespread throughout Eastern USA. The oaks are by far the largest species group growing in the Eastern hardwood forests. Red oaks grow more abundantly than the white oaks. The red oak group comprises many species, of which about eight are commercial. General Description The sapwood of red oak is white to light brown and the heartwood is a pinkish reddish brown. The wood is similar in general appearance to white oak, but with a slightly less pronounced figure due to the smaller rays. The wood is mostly straight grained, with a coarse texture. The red oak tree gets its name because of the colour of the leaves in the “fall” (Autumn). Working Properties Red oak machines well, nailing and screwing is good although pre-boring is recommended, and it can be stained and polished to a good finish. It has a high shrinkage and can be susceptible to movement in performance. Physical Properties The wood is hard and heavy, with medium bending strength and stiffness and high crushing strength. It is very good for steam bending. Southern red oak has a more rapid growth than Northern red oak and tends to be harder and heavier. Specific Gravity: 0.63 (12% M.C.) Average Weight: 705 kg/m3 (12% M.C.) Average Volumetric Shrinkage: 10.8% (Green to 6% M.C.) Modulus of Elasticity: 12,549 MPa Hardness: 5738 N Durability Rated slightly to non-resistant to heartwood decay, moderately easy to treat with preservatives. Availability USA: Abundant. Most widely used species. Export: Good availability as lumber and veneer, but less than white oak. Red oak is often classified according to growing regions and marketed as Northern red oak, and Southern red oak. Main Uses Construction, furniture, flooring, architectural interiors, internal joinery and mouldings, doors, kitchen cabinets, panelling, coffins and caskets. Not suitable for tight cooperage. Red oak can vary in colour, texture, characteristics and properties according to the growing region. It is therefore recommended that users and specifiers work closely with their suppliers to make sure the wood they order is suited to their specific needs.   Source: Ahec.org American Hardwood Export Council Ahec.org. "American Hardwood Export Council." 2002. http://www.ahec.org/hardwoods/guide/index.html (accessed 6 Dec 2013).


African Mahogany-Khaya

Common Name(s): African Mahogany Scientific Name: Khaya spp. (Khaya anthotheca, K. grandifoliola, K. ivorensis, K. senegalensis) Distribution: West tropical Africa Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 43 lbs/ft3 (685 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .55, .69 Janka Hardness: 910 lbf (4,040 N) Modulus of Rupture: 12,240 lbf/in2 (84.4 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,383,000 lbf/in2 (9.54 GPa) Crushing Strength: 8,100 lbf/in2 (55.9 MPa)   Shrinkage: Radial: 3.7%, Tangential: 6.6%, Volumetric: 10.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.8 Color/Appearance: Heartwood color is variable, ranging from a very pale pink to a deeper reddish brown, sometimes with streaks of medium to dark reddish brown. Color tends to darken with age. Quartersawn surfaces can also exhibit a ribbon-stripe appearance. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight to interlocked, with a medium to coarse texture. Good natural luster with a light-reflecting optical phenomenon known as chatoyancy. Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; large to very large pores, very few; solitary and radial multiples; orange/brown deposits occasionally present; growth rings usually indistinct, though sometimes distinct due to terminal parenchyma; rays medium to wide, fairly close spacing; parenchyma scanty to vasicentric, and occasionally marginal (not typical for Khaya spp.). Rot Resistance: Rated as moderately durable; susceptible to insect attack. Workability: Easy to work, glue, and finish. Tearout can sometimes be a problem if the grain is interlocked. Odor: No characteristic odor. Common Uses: Veneer, plywood, turned items, furniture, boatbuilding, and interior trim. Comments: Comprised of a handful of species from the Khaya genus, all of which are native to Africa. Sometimes lacks the deeper reddish brown color and durability that is common for true mahogany in the Swietenia genus. Botanically, Khaya is a part of the Meliaceæ family, which not only includes mahoganies, but also Sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum), and a host of other commercial species. Considered to be a valid substitute for Honduran Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), otherwise known as “Genuine Mahogany.”   Source: Wood-Database.com The Wood Database The Wood Database. "The Wood Database | Hardwood and Softwood Lumber Identification." 2009. http://www.wood-database.com/ (accessed 8 Dec 2013).


Honduran Mahogany

Common Name(s): Honduran Mahogany, Honduras Mahogany, American Mahogany, Genuine Mahogany, Big-Leaf Mahogany, Brazilian Mahogany Scientific Name: Swietenia macrophylla Distribution: From Southern Mexico to central South America; also commonly grown on plantations Tree Size: 150 ft (45 m) tall, 6 ft (2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 41 lbs/ft3 (655 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .54, .66 Janka Hardness: 900 lbf (4,000 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,660 lbf/in2 (80.4 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,386,000 lbf/in2 (9.56 GPa) Crushing Strength: 6,550 lbf/in2 (45.2 MPa)   Shrinkage: Radial: 3.0%, Tangential: 4.1%, Volumetric: 7.8%, T/R Ratio: 1.4 Color/Appearance: Heartwood color can vary a fair amount with Honduran Mahogany, from a pale pinkish brown, to a darker reddish brown. Color tends to darken with age. Grain/Texture: Has medium to large sized pores, and a medium texture. Grain can be straight, interlocked, irregular or wavy. Mahogany also exhibits an optical phenomenon known as chatoyancy. Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; medium to large pores in no specific arrangement; solitary and radial multiples of 2-3; mineral deposits occasionally present; growth rings distinct due to marginal parenchyma; rays barely visible without lens; parenchyma banded (marginal), paratracheal parenchyma vasicentric. Rot Resistance: Considered durable or very durable in regards to decay resistance, though it has been reported as being susceptible to insect attack. Workability: Typically very easy to work with tools: machines well. (With exception to sections with figured grain, which can tearout or chip during machining.) Slight dulling of cutters can occur. Sands very easily. Turns, glues, stains, and finishes well. Odor: No characteristic odor. Common Uses: Furniture, cabinetry, turned objects, veneers, musical instruments, boatbuilding, and carving. Comments: Honduran Mahogany goes by many names, yet perhaps its most accurate and telling name is Genuine Mahogany. Not to be confused with cheaper imitations, such as Philippine Mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla is what most consider to be the real and true species when referring to “Mahogany.”   Source: Wood-Database.com The Wood Database The Wood Database. "The Wood Database | Hardwood and Softwood Lumber Identification." 2009. http://www.wood-database.com/ (accessed 8 Dec 2013).


Sipo Mahogany

Common Name(s): Utile, Sipo, Sipo Mahogany Scientific Name: Entandrophragma utile Distribution: West and Central Africa Tree Size: 150-200 ft (45-60 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 40 lbs/ft3 (635 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .53, .63 Janka Hardness: 1,180 lbf (5,260 N) Modulus of Rupture: 15,060 lbf/in2 (103.8 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,689,000 lbf/in2 (11.65 GPa) Crushing Strength: 8,280 lbf/in2 (57.1 MPa)   Shrinkage: Radial: 4.9%, Tangential: 6.9%, Volumetric: 11.8%, T/R Ratio: 1.4 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a uniform medium reddish brown. Well-defined sapwood is a paler yellow. Generally lacks any dramatic figuring of grain that is common in the closely related Sapele. Grain/Texture: Grain is interlocked, with a medium uniform texture. Moderate natural luster. Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; solitary and radial multiples; large pores in no specific arrangement, very few; reddish brown heartwood gum deposits occasionally present; parenchyma vasicentric, banded; narrow rays, spacing normal. Rot Resistance: Rated as moderately durable to durable, with mixed reports on insect resistance. Workability: Utile can be troublesome to work in some machining operations, (i.e., planing, routing, etc.), resulting in tearout due to its interlocked grain. It will also react when put into direct contact with iron, becoming discolored and stained. Turns, glues, and finishes well. Odor: Utile has a mild, cedar-like scent while being worked. Common Uses: Furniture, cabinetry, veneer, boatbuilding, flooring, and turned objects. Comments: Sometimes called Sipo Mahogany, or simply Sipo, Utile is in the Meliaceae family, and is somewhat related to the true mahoganies found in the Swietenia genus.   Source: Wood-Database.com The Wood Database The Wood Database. "The Wood Database | Hardwood and Softwood Lumber Identification." 2009. http://www.wood-database.com/ (accessed 8 Dec 2013).


Alder

Distribution West coast USA, principally the Pacific North West, where it is the most common commercial hardwood. General Description Red alder is almost white when freshly cut but quickly changes on exposure to air to light brown with a yellow or reddish tinge. Heartwood is formed only in trees of advanced age and there is no visible boundary between sap and heartwood. The wood is fairly straight grained with a uniform texture. Working Properties Red alder machines well and is excellent for turning and polishing. It nails, screws and glues well, and can be sanded, painted, or stained to a good finish. It dries easily with little degrade and has good dimensional stability after drying. Physical Properties Red alder is a relatively soft hardwood of medium density that has low bending strength, shock resistance and stiffness. Specific Gravity: 0.41 (12% M.C.) Average Weight: 449 kg/m3 (12% M.C.) Average Volumetric Shrinkage: 10.1% Modulus of Elasticity: 9,515 MPa Hardness: 2624 N Durability The wood is non-resistant to heartwood decay, liable to attack by the common furniture beetle but is permeable for preservation treatment. Availability USA: Reasonably available, but strictly limited by region. Export: Readily available in some markets but limited in others. Available in dimension stock and rough lumber. Main Uses Furniture, kitchen cabinets, doors, interior moldings, turning, carving and kitchen utensils.   Source: Ahec.org American Hardwood Export Council Ahec.org. "American Hardwood Export Council." 2002. http://www.ahec.org/hardwoods/guide/index.html (accessed 6 Dec 2013).


Cherry

Distribution Throughout Eastern USA. Main commercial areas Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia and New York States. General Description The heartwood of cherry varies from rich red to reddish brown and will darken on exposure to light. In contrast the sapwood is creamy white. The wood has a fine uniform straight grain, smooth texture, and may naturally contain brown pith flecks and small gum pockets. Working Properties Cherry is easy to machine, nails and glues well and when sanded, stained and polished, it produces an excellent smooth finish. It dries fairly quickly with moderately large shrinkage, but is dimensionally stable after kilning. Physical Properties The wood is of medium density with good wood bending properties, it has low stiffness and medium strength and shock resistance. Specific Gravity: 0.50 (12% M.C.) Average Weight: 561 kg/m3 (12% M.C.) Average Volumetric Shrinkage: 9.2% Modulus of Elasticity: 10,274 MPa Hardness: 4226 N Durability Rated as resistant to heartwood decay. The sapwood is liable to attack by common furniture beetle, and the heartwood moderately resistant to preservative treatment. Availability USA: Regionally available. Export: Widely available in a full range of specifications and grades as both lumber and veneer. Main Uses Furniture and cabinet making, high class joinery, kitchen cabinets, moldings, panelling, flooring, doors, boat interiors, musical instruments, turning and carving.   Source: Ahec.org American Hardwood Export Council Ahec.org. "American Hardwood Export Council." 2002. http://www.ahec.org/hardwoods/guide/index.html (accessed 6 Dec 2013).


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