Wooden Window

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Wood Species

These are some of our standard wood options, although you may specify virtually any wood species.

Vertical Grain Douglas Fir

Common Name(s): Douglas Fir;  Scientific Name: Pseudotsuga menziesii Specific Gravity: (Basic, 12% MC): .45, .51 Average Volumetric Shrinkage: Radial: 4.5%, Tangential: 7.3%, Volumetric: 11.6%, T/R Ratio: 1.6 Modulus of Rupture: 12,500 lbf/in2 (86.2 MPa) Janka Hardness: 620 lbf (2,760 N) Distribution Western North America Color/Appearance Can vary in color based on age and location of the tree. Usually a light brown color with a hint of red and/or yellow, with darker growth rings. In quartersawn pieces, the grain is typically straight and plain. In flatsawn pieces, (typically seen in rotary-sliced veneers), the wood can exhibit wild grain patterns.* (see note at bottom of page) Working Properties Typically machines well, but has a moderate blunting effect on cutters. Accepts stains, glues, and finishes well.* (see note at bottom of page) Allergies/Toxicity Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Douglas-Fir has been reported to cause skin irritation, nausea, giddiness, runny nose, along with an increased likelihood of splinters getting infected. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. Availability Should be widely available as construction lumber for a modest price. Old growth or reclaimed boards can be much more expensive. Main Uses Veneer, plywood, and structural/construction lumber. *Doug fir is a soft wood and can have tiny pitch pockets deep in the wood, even when kiln dried to a specific moisture content. When doug fir is milled down into narrow  pieces and then alternately heats and cools in an exterior environment, those pitch pockets begin to expand and contract and sometimes break through the surface, oozing pitch. This can happen in about 10-15% of installations and is the reason why we no longer routinely build with this material. Occasionally a client wants stain-grade doug fir to match other woodwork in their home, and in these cases we build with fir but point out the possibility of cracking.   Source: "Western Red Cedar | The Wood Database - Lumber Identification (Softwood)". 2017. Wood-Database.Com. http://www.wood-database.com/douglas-fir/. Accessed July 12 2017.


Western Red Cedar

Common Name(s): Western Red Cedar Scientific Name: Thuja plicata Specific Gravity: (Basic, 12% MC): .31, .37 Average Volumetric Shrinkage: Radial: 2.4%, Tangential: 5.0%, Volumetric: 6.8%, T/R Ratio: 2.1 Modulus of Elasticity: 1,110,000 lbf/in2 (7.66 GPa) Janka Hardness: 350 lbf (1,560 N) Distribution Pacific Northwest United States/Canada Color/Appearance Heartwood is reddish to pinkish brown, often with random streaks and bands of darker red/brown areas. Narrow sapwood is pale yellowish white and isn’t always sharply demarcated from the heartwood. Working Properties Easy to work with both hand or machine tools, though it dents and scratches very easily due to its softness, and can sand unevenly due to the difference in density between the earlywood and latewood zones. Glues and finishes well. Iron-based fasteners can stain and discolor the wood, especially in the presence of moisture. Availability Should be moderately inexpensive for construction-grade lumber, though higher grades of clear, straight-grained, quartersawn lumber can be more expensive. Main Uses Western Red Cedar is a commercially important lumber, used in a number of applications ranging from rough-sawn lumber for use in home construction to clear quartersawn material for classical guitar soundboards.   Source: "Western Red Cedar | The Wood Database - Lumber Identification (Softwood)". 2017. Wood-Database.Com. http://www.wood-database.com/western-red-cedar/. Accessed July 12 2017.


Red Oak

Distribution Widespread throughout Eastern USA. The oaks are by far the largest species group growing in the Eastern hardwood forests. Red oaks grow more abundantly than the white oaks. The red oak group comprises many species, of which about eight are commercial. General Description The sapwood of red oak is white to light brown and the heartwood is a pinkish reddish brown. The wood is similar in general appearance to white oak, but with a slightly less pronounced figure due to the smaller rays. The wood is mostly straight grained, with a coarse texture. The red oak tree gets its name because of the colour of the leaves in the “fall” (Autumn). Working Properties Red oak machines well, nailing and screwing is good although pre-boring is recommended, and it can be stained and polished to a good finish. It has a high shrinkage and can be susceptible to movement in performance. Physical Properties The wood is hard and heavy, with medium bending strength and stiffness and high crushing strength. It is very good for steam bending. Southern red oak has a more rapid growth than Northern red oak and tends to be harder and heavier. Specific Gravity: 0.63 (12% M.C.) Average Weight: 705 kg/m3 (12% M.C.) Average Volumetric Shrinkage: 10.8% (Green to 6% M.C.) Modulus of Elasticity: 12,549 MPa Hardness: 5738 N Durability Rated slightly to non-resistant to heartwood decay, moderately easy to treat with preservatives. Availability USA: Abundant. Most widely used species. Export: Good availability as lumber and veneer, but less than white oak. Red oak is often classified according to growing regions and marketed as Northern red oak, and Southern red oak. Main Uses Construction, furniture, flooring, architectural interiors, internal joinery and mouldings, doors, kitchen cabinets, panelling, coffins and caskets. Not suitable for tight cooperage. Red oak can vary in colour, texture, characteristics and properties according to the growing region. It is therefore recommended that users and specifiers work closely with their suppliers to make sure the wood they order is suited to their specific needs.   Source: Ahec.org American Hardwood Export Council Ahec.org. "American Hardwood Export Council." 2002. http://www.ahec.org/hardwoods/guide/index.html (accessed 6 Dec 2013).


Sapele

  Scientific Name: Entandrophragma cylindricum Distribution: West tropical Africa Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 43 lbs/ft3 (685 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .55, .69 Janka Hardness: 910 lbf (4,040 N) Modulus of Rupture: 12,240 lbf/in2 (84.4 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,383,000 lbf/in2 (9.54 GPa) Crushing Strength: 8,100 lbf/in2 (55.9 MPa)   Shrinkage: Radial: 3.7%, Tangential: 6.6%, Volumetric: 10.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.8 Color/Appearance: Heartwood color is variable, ranging from a very pale pink to a deeper reddish brown, sometimes with streaks of medium to dark reddish brown. Color tends to darken with age. Quartersawn surfaces can also exhibit a ribbon-stripe appearance. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight to interlocked, with a medium to coarse texture. Good natural luster with a light-reflecting optical phenomenon known as chatoyancy. Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; large to very large pores, very few; solitary and radial multiples; orange/brown deposits occasionally present; growth rings usually indistinct, though sometimes distinct due to terminal parenchyma; rays medium to wide, fairly close spacing; parenchyma scanty to vasicentric, and occasionally marginal (not typical for Khaya spp.). Rot Resistance: Rated as moderately durable. Workability: Easy to work, glue, and finish. Odor: No characteristic odor. Common Uses: Veneer, plywood, turned items, furniture, boatbuilding, and interior trim. Among its more exotic uses is that in musical instruments. It is used for the back and sides of acoustic guitar bodies, as well as the tops of electric guitar bodies. Comments: Sapele is in the same family as Mahogany and shares many of its qualities. Sapele contains an interlocking grain that produces light and dark ribbon stripes throughout the boards. Sapele is often quartersawn to highlight these ribbons, and it is often used as a veneer for plywood in this application. It is stable once dry, and it is frequently used in the construction of doors.   Source: Wood-Database.com The Wood Database The Wood Database. "The Wood Database | Hardwood and Softwood Lumber Identification." 2009. http://www.wood-database.com/ (accessed 8 Dec 2013).


Honduran Mahogany

Common Name(s): Honduran Mahogany, Honduras Mahogany, American Mahogany, Genuine Mahogany, Big-Leaf Mahogany, Brazilian Mahogany Scientific Name: Swietenia macrophylla Distribution: From Southern Mexico to central South America; also commonly grown on plantations Tree Size: 150 ft (45 m) tall, 6 ft (2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 41 lbs/ft3 (655 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .54, .66 Janka Hardness: 900 lbf (4,000 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,660 lbf/in2 (80.4 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,386,000 lbf/in2 (9.56 GPa) Crushing Strength: 6,550 lbf/in2 (45.2 MPa)   Shrinkage: Radial: 3.0%, Tangential: 4.1%, Volumetric: 7.8%, T/R Ratio: 1.4 Color/Appearance: Heartwood color can vary a fair amount with Honduran Mahogany, from a pale pinkish brown, to a darker reddish brown. Color tends to darken with age. Grain/Texture: Has medium to large sized pores, and a medium texture. Grain can be straight, interlocked, irregular or wavy. Mahogany also exhibits an optical phenomenon known as chatoyancy. Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; medium to large pores in no specific arrangement; solitary and radial multiples of 2-3; mineral deposits occasionally present; growth rings distinct due to marginal parenchyma; rays barely visible without lens; parenchyma banded (marginal), paratracheal parenchyma vasicentric. Rot Resistance: Considered durable or very durable in regards to decay resistance, though it has been reported as being susceptible to insect attack. Workability: Typically very easy to work with tools: machines well. (With exception to sections with figured grain, which can tearout or chip during machining.) Slight dulling of cutters can occur. Sands very easily. Turns, glues, stains, and finishes well. Odor: No characteristic odor. Common Uses: Furniture, cabinetry, turned objects, veneers, musical instruments, boatbuilding, and carving. Comments: Honduran Mahogany goes by many names, yet perhaps its most accurate and telling name is Genuine Mahogany. Not to be confused with cheaper imitations, such as Philippine Mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla is what most consider to be the real and true species when referring to “Mahogany.”   Source: Wood-Database.com The Wood Database The Wood Database. "The Wood Database | Hardwood and Softwood Lumber Identification." 2009. http://www.wood-database.com/ (accessed 8 Dec 2013).


Alder

Distribution West coast USA, principally the Pacific North West, where it is the most common commercial hardwood. General Description Red alder is almost white when freshly cut but quickly changes on exposure to air to light brown with a yellow or reddish tinge. Heartwood is formed only in trees of advanced age and there is no visible boundary between sap and heartwood. The wood is fairly straight grained with a uniform texture. Working Properties Red alder machines well and is excellent for turning and polishing. It nails, screws and glues well, and can be sanded, painted, or stained to a good finish. It dries easily with little degrade and has good dimensional stability after drying. Physical Properties Red alder is a relatively soft hardwood of medium density that has low bending strength, shock resistance and stiffness. Specific Gravity: 0.41 (12% M.C.) Average Weight: 449 kg/m3 (12% M.C.) Average Volumetric Shrinkage: 10.1% Modulus of Elasticity: 9,515 MPa Hardness: 2624 N Durability The wood is non-resistant to heartwood decay, liable to attack by the common furniture beetle but is permeable for preservation treatment. Availability USA: Reasonably available, but strictly limited by region. Export: Readily available in some markets but limited in others. Available in dimension stock and rough lumber. Main Uses Furniture, kitchen cabinets, doors, interior moldings, turning, carving and kitchen utensils.   Source: Ahec.org American Hardwood Export Council Ahec.org. "American Hardwood Export Council." 2002. http://www.ahec.org/hardwoods/guide/index.html (accessed 6 Dec 2013).


Cherry

Distribution Throughout Eastern USA. Main commercial areas Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia and New York States. General Description The heartwood of cherry varies from rich red to reddish brown and will darken on exposure to light. In contrast the sapwood is creamy white. The wood has a fine uniform straight grain, smooth texture, and may naturally contain brown pith flecks and small gum pockets. Working Properties Cherry is easy to machine, nails and glues well and when sanded, stained and polished, it produces an excellent smooth finish. It dries fairly quickly with moderately large shrinkage, but is dimensionally stable after kilning. Physical Properties The wood is of medium density with good wood bending properties, it has low stiffness and medium strength and shock resistance. Specific Gravity: 0.50 (12% M.C.) Average Weight: 561 kg/m3 (12% M.C.) Average Volumetric Shrinkage: 9.2% Modulus of Elasticity: 10,274 MPa Hardness: 4226 N Durability Rated as resistant to heartwood decay. The sapwood is liable to attack by common furniture beetle, and the heartwood moderately resistant to preservative treatment. Availability USA: Regionally available. Export: Widely available in a full range of specifications and grades as both lumber and veneer. Main Uses Furniture and cabinet making, high class joinery, kitchen cabinets, moldings, panelling, flooring, doors, boat interiors, musical instruments, turning and carving.   Source: Ahec.org American Hardwood Export Council Ahec.org. "American Hardwood Export Council." 2002. http://www.ahec.org/hardwoods/guide/index.html (accessed 6 Dec 2013).


Hardrock Maple

Distribution Eastern USA, principally Mid-Atlantic and Lake States. A cold weather tree favoring a more Northerly climate. General Description The sapwood is creamy white with a slight reddish brown tinge and the heartwood varies from light to dark reddish brown. The amount of darker brown heartwood can vary significantly according to growing region. Both sapwood and heartwood can contain pith fleck. The wood has a close fine texture and is generally straight grained, but it can also occur as “curly”, “fiddleback”, and “birds-eye” figure. Working Properties Hard maple dries slowly with a large shrinkage, so it can be susceptible to movement in performance. Pre-boring is recommended when nailing and screwing. With care it machines well, turns well, glues satisfactorily, and can be stained and polished to an outstanding finish. Physical Properties The wood is hard and heavy with good strength properties, in particular its high resistance to abrasion and wear. It also has good steam bending properties. Specific Gravity: 0.63 (12% M.C.) Average Weight: 705 kg/m3 (12% M.C.) Average Volumetric Shrinkage: 110.9% Modulus of Elasticity: 12,618 MPa Hardness: 6450 N Durability Rated as slightly or non-resistant to heartwood decay. Sapwood is liable to attack by furniture beetle. The heartwood is resistant to preservative treatment but the sapwood is permeable. Availability USA: Widely available. Export: Widely available as lumber and veneer. The higher quality grades of lumber are available selected for white colour (sapwood) although this can limit availability. Figured maple (birds-eye, curly, fiddleback) is generally only available in commercial volumes as veneer. Main Uses Flooring, furniture, panelling, kitchen cabinets, worktops and table tops, interior joinery: stairs, handrails, mouldings, and doors.   Source: Ahec.org American Hardwood Export Council Ahec.org. "American Hardwood Export Council." 2002. http://www.ahec.org/hardwoods/guide/index.html (accessed 6 Dec 2013).


White Oak

General Description White oak is similar in color and appearance to European oak. The sapwood of American white oak is light coloured and the heartwood is light to dark brown. White oak is mostly straight grained with a medium to coarse texture, with longer rays than red oak. White oak therefore has more figure. Physical Properties A hard and heavy wood with medium bending and crushing strength, low in stiffness, but very good in steam bending. Southern white oak is faster grown with wide growth rings, and tends to be harder and heavier. Specific Gravity: 0.68 (12% M.C.) Average Weight: 769 kg/m3 (12% M.C.) Average Volumetric Shrinkage: 12.6% (Green to 6% M.C.) Modulus of Elasticity: 12,273 MPa Hardness: 6049 N Distribution Widespread throughout Eastern USA. The white oak group comprises many species, of which about eight are commercial. Variations Like many wood species, the appearance of white oak can vary considerably, depending on how it is cut, or milled, for use.   Rift Sawn, or Rift Cut White Oak Rift sawn white oak exhibits straight, close grain. Quartersawn White Oak Quartersaw white oak exhibits random figuring throughout.  Figured areas vary in color and tone from lighter shades of the surrounding wood color to a nearly metallic or pearlescent appearance. Flat Sawn White Oak Flat cut white oak exhibits random, broad grain swirls. Working Properties White oak machines well, nails and screws well although pre-boring is advised. As it reacts with iron, galvanised nails are recommended. Its adhesive properties are variable, but it stains and polishes to a good finish. The wood dries slowly and care is needed to avoid checking. Due to its high shrinkage, it can be susceptible to movement in performance. Durability The heartwood is resistant to decay, extremely resistant to preservative treatment, and the sapwood is moderately resistant to treatment. Availability USA: Readily available but not as abundant as red oak. Export: Very widely available in lumber and veneer, in a full range of qualities and specifications. The most important hardwood export. Main Uses Construction, furniture, flooring, architectural joinery, exterior joinery, mouldings, doors, kitchen cabinets, panelling, railway sleepers, timber bridges, barrel staves, coffins and caskets. White oak can vary in colour, texture, characteristics and properties according to the growing region. It is therefore recommended that users and specifiers work closely with their suppliers to make sure the wood they order is suited to their specific needs. Northern and Southern may be sold separately.   Source: Ahec.org American Hardwood Export Council Ahec.org. "American Hardwood Export Council." 2002. http://www.ahec.org/hardwoods/guide/index.html (accessed 6 Dec 2013).


Eastern Black Walnut

Distribution Throughout eastern USA, but principal commercial region is the Central States. One of the few American species planted as well as naturally regenerated. General Description The sapwood of walnut is creamy white, while the heartwood is light brown to dark chocolate brown, occasionally with a purplish cast and darker streaks. Walnut can be supplied steamed, to darken sapwood or left unsteamed. The wood is generally straight grained, but sometimes with wavy or curly grain that produces an attractive and decorative figure. Working Properties Walnut works easily with hand and machine tools, and nails, screws and glues well. It holds paint and stain very well and can be polished to an exceptional finish. It dries slowly, and care is needed to avoid kilning degrade. Walnut has good dimensional stability. Physical Properties Walnut is a tough hard timber of medium density, with moderate bending and crushing strengths and low stiffness. It has a good steam bending classification. Specific Gravity: 0.55 (12% M.C.) Average Weight: 609 kg/m3 (12% M.C.) Average Volumetric Shrinkage: 10.2% (Green to 6% M.C.) Modulus of Elasticity: 11,584 MPa Hardness: 4492 N Durability Rated as very resistant to heartwood decay, it is one of the most durable woods even under conditions favourable to decay. Sapwood liable to attack by powder post beetles. Availability USA: Reasonable availability with regional limitations. Export: Reasonable availability in both lumber and veneer. Main Uses Furniture, cabinet making, architectural interiors, high class joinery, doors, flooring, and panelling. A favoured wood for using in contrast with lighter coloured timbers.   Source: Ahec.org American Hardwood Export Council Ahec.org. "American Hardwood Export Council." 2002. http://www.ahec.org/hardwoods/guide/index.html (accessed 6 Dec 2013).


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